Language structures: exam prep

Language structures – know what they are and how they work.  Use the links to access short videos which will remind you of these aspects of language.  Use your Year 9 text book to revise their application and also

You should revise the following:

Remember the process for identifying sentence structures:

  1. Is it a phrase or clause? (a clause needs a subject and verb)
  2. If C then I or D? (if it’s a clause then is it independent or dependent)

If you are looking to brush up on your grammar, you can go to noredink or use Grammar Bytes!


Sentence Structures

Watch the following video to brush up on the basic building blocks of the English language: sentences.  This is a very simple introduction to the first three types of sentences.

You will need to be able to identify:

  1. Simple sentences
  2. Compound sentences
  3. Complex sentences
  4. Compound-complex sentences


This neat (though heteronormative) graphic gives you a way of visualising the relationship between clauses.  If you think of clauses as being independents (like your parents) and the dependents (like you, kiddo) then you will know how the parents can stand alone (simple sentence) or side-by-side (compound sentence) and that, when they have a kid in tow the kid is less important (bear with me!) and can’t survive in the world by itself.

For a more thorough look at all four sentence types in action, watch the following video .  Note that it makes reference to the coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so = FANBOYS).

Grammar Bytes!  is a great website presenting easily digestible information about each grammar element and it includes self-test exercises on sentence structures and errors, such as run-on sentences or sentence fragments.

If you need to brush up on the following points of grammar, you can easily log in to the self-testing site NoRedInk and complete some drills to get immediate feedback on your proficiency.

Nature and Function of English Language: an introduction


Watch a bit of Fry and Laurie as they riff on the idea of the English language.  If you want to get a sense of how we got to the English we have today, watch The History of English in Ten Minutes.

We will be looking at:

  • the major functions language serves
  • the role of language in thought processes and social and cultural understandings
  • the primary modes of language: spoken, written and signed
  • language as a highly elaborate system of signs and conventions

What are the major functions of language?

There are so many but here are a few…







How have you used language today since the time you woke up?  For each of the spoken and written modes, list a range of functions.

Ever heard the theory that texting is bad for your English skills?  Listen to Professor David Crystal, renowned linguist defend texting.  He explains how each time we use language it is for a purpose.